Need help to make Crafty work

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phhnguyen
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Re: Need help to make Crafty work

Post by phhnguyen » Thu Jul 18, 2019 12:16 am

lol, I have asked myself sometimes why they are two different words (“cores” and “smp”).

BTW, IMO, “cores” is a bit easier to guess the meaning than “smp”!
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A freeware chess GUI, based on opensource Banksia - the chess tournament manager

MikeB
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Re: Need help to make Crafty work

Post by MikeB » Fri Jul 19, 2019 1:16 am

phhnguyen wrote:
Thu Jul 18, 2019 12:16 am
lol, I have asked myself sometimes why they are two different words (“cores” and “smp”).

BTW, IMO, “cores” is a bit easier to guess the meaning than “smp”!
and "threads" - and they all mean different things literally. But back in the day. when SMP first came out ( early 1960's) , it was either one core or two cores for SMP. Three cores were first supported in 1965 using a UNIVAC 1108 II With respect to chess engines, SMP was first used in the 1970's. Gérard M. Baudet earned his Ph.D from Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) on "The Design and Analysis of Algorithms for Asynchronous Multiprocessors" in 1978. Carnegie Mellon University was a hotspot for chess programming for a long time, going back to the 1950's.
"Edward Fredkin--currently a visiting career professor of computer science at CMU--threw down the gauntlet in 1980. A pioneer in artificial intelligence and inventor of the Fredkin gate, the trie data structure and other hardware and software innovations, Fredkin promised $100,000 to the designers of the first computer that could beat a world chess champion.

Carnegie Mellon and Carnegie Tech had a long history in computer chess, dating back to Herb Simon, Allen Newell and Cliff Shaw's 1950s development of NSS, the first chess program able to beat a human player. Naturally, CMU was chosen to award the new Fredkin Prize.

The first team to get close was at Bell Laboratories, where in 1981, a chess computer achieved master status. (The designers shared a $5,000 Fredkin award for their work.) Then, in 1988, five CMU grad students--Thomas Anantharaman (CS'86,'90), Michael Browne (CS'86,'89), Murray Campbell (CS'87), Feng-hsiung Hsu (CS'90) and Andreas Nowatzyk (CS'90)--received a $10,000 Fredkin award for designing a machine that reached international master status. They named it "Deep Thought" after the computer that knew the answer to the meaning of "life, the universe and everything" in Douglas Adams' The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy.

Eight years later, at IBM, Campbell, Hsu and colleagues unveiled their ultimate chess-playing computer--Deep Blue, a 30-node parallel-processing machine with but one purpose: playing chess, and playing it fast, evaluating up to 200 million possible positions every second.

At the time, the world's reigning champion was Garry Kasparov, who had defeated Deep Thought in a two-game match in 1989. Now, in February 1996, Kasparov took on Deep Blue in Philadelphia. The computer won the first game, but Kasparov won three and twice fought the machine to a draw to win the overall tournament.

More than a year later, in May 1997, Kasparov and a much-improved Deep Blue faced off again, this time in New York City. Kasparov won the first match. Deep Blue won the second, and the next three games were draws. The sixth was a decisive win for Deep Blue and the IBM team. Kasparov, who claimed to have seen "human intelligence" in Deep Blue's moves, demanded a rematch. IBM declined.

That June, Hsu, Campbell, and IBM researcher A. Joseph Hoane Jr. received the $100,000 Fredkin Prize during the AAAI's annual meeting in Providence, R.I. "There has never been any doubt in my mind that a computer would ultimately beat a reigning world chess champion," Fredkin told reporters. "The question has always been when.""
link: https://www.cs.cmu.edu/link/then-and-now-2

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